God’s Calendar

NOTE: This page will present evidence for consideration concerning Lunar Sabbath. Test everything, we have not yet come to a conclusion on this matter.

The topic of God’s true calendar is one that has been lost and forgotten by the mainstream today.  Our present day time keeping of days, months and years has been accepted by the entire world for the past 1,900 years but where did it come from?  How was this decree reached?  When you study the history of the Israelites, and the history of the world- a clear but startling picture begins to emerge.  A picture where God’s times and God’s laws have been completely changed to become the times and laws of men.  This shouldn’t be a surprise, as it was prophesied that the fourth and final beast of Daniel 7 would “change the times and change the laws” (See “Identifying Antichrist” page).  While the majority of Christianity is waiting for this to happen at some time in the future, they fail to realize that this happened long ago.  The true origin of time keeping established by God can be found in the bible and ancient Jewish writings.  To begin our study, we must as always heed the words of Isaiah, and the words of the prophets and apostles:

“To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.”  ~ Isaiah 8:20

“For I am the Lord, I change not.” ~ Malachi 3:6

“Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning. ~ James 1:17

“Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever.” ~ Hebrews 13:8

“My covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing that is gone out of my lips. ~ Psalm 89:34

Disclaimor: Please know that we are in no way justified by our works in the flesh. We are only justified by the blood of Yeshua, our savior.  Obedience to the commandments of God is not for the purpose of justifying ourselves, rather the believer obeys God out of love for God, and love for neighbor.  Follow the prompting of the Holy Spirit that is within you in all things.

Some will say that it doesn’t matter what calendar you acknowledge- yet the scriptures indicate that Satan will intentionally try to sit in God’s seat and control God’s appointed times, and he has done so successfully:

“How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation (In Hebrew- mo’edim meaning appointed times), in the sides of the north: I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.” ~ Isaiah 14:12-14

Let’s take a look to the beginning, by looking at what God had to say about the creation in the beginning of time.  The object of creation that had to do with time keeping was the moon, and you will see that according to Genesis, it was created on the fourth day:

“And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:  And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.” ~ Genesis 1:14-15

The entire purpose of the sun and moon were to be for signs, seasons, days and years.  When God gave the Sabbath Day commandment he said:

“Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying, Verily my sabbaths ye shall keep: for it is a sign between me and you throughout your generations; that ye may know that I am the Lord that doth sanctify you.  Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore; for it is holy unto you: every one that defileth it shall surely be put to death: for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people.  Six days may work be done; but in the seventh is the sabbath of rest, holy to the Lord: whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death.  Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenantIt is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.” ~ Exodus 31:13-17

In addition, the book of Jubilees (not an official “inspired” book of the bible) says:

And thus He created therein a sign in accordance with which they should keep Sabbath with us on the seventh day, to eat and to drink, and to bless Him who has created all things as He has blessed and sanctified unto Himself a peculiar people above all peoples, and that they should keep Sabbath together with us.” ~ Book Of Jubilees 2:21

As we read in Genesis, the Moon and Sun were given for signs and seasons, and we see here that the Sabbath is actually one of these “Signs”.  The Hebrew word used for “signs” is “o-tot”, the same term used in describing the “sign” of the Sabbath day in Exodus 31:13.  There were other events that were to be marked by the Moon and the Sun.  In Leviticus 23, God gives Moses and the people his holy feast days which were to be kept from generation to generation “forever”.  The first of the feast days mentioned by God is actually the Sabbath Day:

“And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying,  Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the feasts of the Lord, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts.  Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the sabbath of rest, an holy convocation; ye shall do no work therein: it is the sabbath of the Lord in all your dwellings.  These are the feasts of the Lord, even holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their seasons.” ~ Leviticus 23:1-4

“He appointed the moon for seasons: the sun knoweth his going down.” ~ Psalm 104:19

Here again is the term “seasons”.  Remember from Genesis 1, that the Moon and Sun were to be for signs, seasons, days and years.  Here a relationship is revealed between the moon and the sabbath. The Hebrew word in Genesis 1:14 used for our english word “seasons” was “mo-w-a-dim”.  This same Hebrew word with the root “Moed”, is used in various places in the bible for appointed times, meetings, meeting places, definite time, assembly, appointed sign, appointed festival, appointed place….I think you get the idea.  It is used 147 times in scripture to represent the word “meeting.”  We can also see that in scripture, 3 different kinds of days are identified- Sabbaths, New Moons, and Working Days:

“Thus saith the Lord God; The gate of the inner court that looketh toward the east shall be shut the six working days; but on the sabbath it shall be opened, and in the day of the new moon it shall be opened.” ~ Ezekiel 46:1

“And he said, Wherefore wilt thou go to him to day? it is neither new moon, nor sabbath. And she said, It shall be well.” ~ 2 Kings 4:23

You can see that these are separate and distinct kinds of days.  There is not a single example in scripture of an “overlapping” of days (sabbaths/new moons/working days).  According to today’s Jewish perpetual calendar, there is now overlapping of sabbaths and new moons, yet you will see that this kind of reckoning is not found nor is it rooted in the scriptural or historic record.  Ask yourself, can a Sabbath day be a workday?  Can they occupy the same 24 hour period?  I’m sure you agree that a sabbath day and a work day cannot be on the same day.  The same is true with New Moon Days.  These are days that were assigned into a category all to themselves.  The signs in the heavens were created to perform an important task, given office by the creator himself, to mark days, appointed times, months, years, etc for His creation:

“For sun, moon, and stars, being bright and sent to do their offices, are obedient.” ~ Letter of Jeremiah- Verse 59 (Early Jewish Writing)

“Upon the fourth day thou commandedst that the sun should shine, and the moon give her light, and the stars should be in order: And gavest them a charge to do service unto man, that was to be made.” ~ 2 Esdras 6:45-46 (Early Jewish Writing)

There is record of even Noah observing God’s calendar many years before Abraham and Moses (as referenced using numbered months, and numbered days):

“And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen.” ~ Genesis 8:5

“And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth: and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry.” ~ Genesis 8:13

Looking forward to Moses, when God gave to him the feast days to be kept forever, he used His own calendar.  You will find that every single date reference found in the bible uses God’s calendar, not man’s.  The remainder of the feasts of the Lord are as follows (Found in Leviticus 23):

The Passover– 14th day of the 1st month

The Day of Firstfruits– 16th day of the 1st month

Feast of Unleavened Bread– 15th day of the 1st month- lasts 7 days

The Feast of Pentecost– After Day of Firstfruits, count 7 sabbaths, and then count another 50 days

The Feast of Trumpets– 1st day of the 7th month

The Day of Atonement– 10th day of the 7th month

The Feast of Tabernacles– 15th day of the 7th month- lasts 7 days

Keep in mind that these same holy days were kept by Jesus Christ, by his Apostles, and by the early Christians of the first century, all evidenced in the New Testament scriptures.  We’ll explain in more detail later on this page.  Do you notice that there is no January, February, March, etc…?  Do you notice there is no Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday…?  Why?  Because at the time of the ancient Israelites and even the first Christian church established by Christ, our current worldwide time keeping system didn’t exist.  It was put into effect by the Roman Empire who got the idea of the “perpetual calendar” ironically from the far fallen Pharisees of the first century.  The Pharisees got the idea of the perpetual calender from ancient Babylon while the Jews were in captivity there.  When Jerusalem was destroyed in 70AD, all of the Saduccees were killed leaving only the Pharisees.  The Saduccees were trained and responsible for the proper time keeping of the Jewish people.  When they were wiped out, that left the corrupt Pharisees to dictate the law and times for the Jews, and so they did, creating what is known as the corrupted “Talmud”, a declaration of law that is obeyed by the Jewish people even to present day.  The Romans took the idea of the perpetual week from the Pharisees, and created the Julian Calendar (originally based upon an 8 day week but then was changed to be based on a 7 day week and would later become the Catholic Gregorian calendar), one which is designed for the worship of various Roman Gods.  Each day of the week represented a God, for instance- Saturday was for the God Saturn, Sunday was for the Sun God, etc.  We encourage you to research the history of time keeping and calendars.


We’ve seen how time is referred to in scripture- the 4th day of the 1st month, or the 15th day of the 7th month.  This time keeping language is consistant throughout scripture, but how do we know how months are calculated?  For this we again turn to scripture.  God himself established when the first month of the year would be:

“And the Lord spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt saying, This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you. Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house: And if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto his house take it according to the number of the souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb. Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats: And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.” ~ Exodus 12:1-6

In order for the people to “observe” the month of Abib (the first month of the Jewish year), they would have to observe the New Moon in relation to the stars:

“Observe the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto the Lord thy God: for in the month of Abib the Lord thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.” ~ Deuteronomy 16:10

You can see here that the month of the passover would be the first month of the year as assigned by God.  Strange as it may seem to today’s Christians, this occurs in the Spring.  Most would think it strange that the New Year is in the spring rather than in winter, but this was God’s calendar, not man’s.  This is why the Passover is celebrated on the “14th day of the 1st month” in the spring time.  But how do you know when God’s month begins?  For this we have to study scripture and the historic record in depth to find guidance.  According to the holy scriptures, a day that was kept as a unique feast day and required even more sacrafices than the normal sabbath was the “New Moon Day.”  It was originally thought (and is still accepted by Talmudic Jews today) that witnesses would watch the skies for the first sign of the new crescent moon after it would go completely dark.  Deep research on this has revealed that this new crescent practice actually originated in Ancient Assyria and Babylon when the Jews were enslaved there.  In addition, the hebrew word for “crescent”- śaharōnîm, is only used in the bible in relation to idolatry.  The true original new moon was reckoned at conjunction, when the moon is completely dark and begins to receive light from the sun.  We will explain this in detail in an article soon on this sight.  You can also find quotes from “Philo” regarding conjuction in the “Historic Record” section of this page.  The following morning after conjunction, the trumpets would sound signifying that the new month had arrived.  This New Moon day was kept as a feast day by the Israelites, and the first Christians even after the death of Christ.


“And in the beginnings of your months ye shall offer a burnt offering unto the Lord; two young bullocks, and one ram, seven lambs of the first year without spot; And three tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, for one bullock; and two tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, for one ram; And a several tenth deal of flour mingled with oil for a meat offering unto one lamb; for a burnt offering of a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the Lord. And their drink offerings shall be half an hin of wine unto a bullock, and the third part of an hin unto a ram, and a fourth part of an hin unto a lamb: this is the burnt offering of every month throughout the months of the year.” ~ Numbers 28:11-14

Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the time appointed, on our solemn feast day.” ~ Psalm 81:3

“Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the Lord your God.” ~ Numbers 10:10

Solomon also acknowledged the ordinances of God:

“Behold, I build an house to the name of the LORD my God, to dedicate it to him, and to burn before him sweet incense, and for the continual shewbread, and for the burnt offerings morning and evening, on the sabbaths, and on the new moons, and on the solemn feasts of the LORD our God. This is an ordinance for ever to Israel.” ~ 2 Chronicles 2:4

Again, this is the ordinance “forever” to Israel.  The New Moons and Feasts are to be acknowledged.  Other verses with reference to New Moon feasts include 1 Samuel 20:5, 18, 24; 2 Kings 4:23; 1 Chronicles 23:31; 2 Chronicles 8:13; 2 Chronicles 31:3; Ezra 3:5; Nehemiah 10:33; Psalm 81:3; Isaiah 1:13-14; Isaiah 66:23; Ezekiel 45:16-21, 46:1,3,6, Hosea 2:11; and Amos 8:5.  There is a clear indication that these New Moons were celebrated throughout the Old Testament, but what about the New Testament? Though most Christians today deny this, God’s feasts, sabbaths and the new moons, etc were also kept and obeyed by the first Christian Jewish and Gentile congregations.  We can see an example of this in Colossians 2.  Keep in mind, Apostle Paul is speaking to Gentile Christians, living in a city full of Gentiles- Colossia.

“Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ.  For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily.  And ye are complete in him, which is the head of all principality and power:  In whom also ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh by the circumcision of Christ:  Buried with him in baptism, wherein also ye are risen with him through the faith of the operation of God, who hath raised him from the dead.  And you, being dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, hath he quickened together with him, having forgiven you all trespasses;  Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross;  And having spoiled principalities and powers, he made a shew of them openly, triumphing over them in it.  Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days:  Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body of Christ.” ~ Colossians 2:8-17

We can confirm that Paul is speaking to Gentiles in the statement he makes “And you, being dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh.”  These Gentile Christians in Colossia were being bombarded by the philosophies of the many Gentiles that resided in the city.  They were being judged for acting differently than the rest of these people.  Paul tells them- “Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the Sabbath days, which are a shadow of things to come.”  Remember, this was in the area of Greece and this was not a Jewish city.  The people of this city did not hallow the Sabbath, and did not honor Jewish holy days.  These Gentile Christians obviously stood out in this city because they had changed their lives in obedience to the Sabbaths, holy days, new moons and even God’s dietary laws (in meat and drink).  These ordinances set up by God are as Paul said “a shadow of things to come”, and that is why we continue to obey them, regardless of whether others in society judge us according to “vain philosophies”, etc. We can also see also in Colossians 2, that Paul was scolding the Colossians for bending to gentile worldly customs and traditions by his statement:

“Wherefore if ye be dead with Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as though living in the world, are ye subject to ordinances, (Touch not; taste not; handle not; Which all are to perish with the using;) after the commandments and doctrines of men? ~ Colossians 2:20-22

Ask yourself, is the Sabbath a commandment or doctrine of men? Is the New Moon or Holy days, or Food Laws commandments and doctrines of men? Of course not, these were commandments and doctrines of God found in the Word, not of men. Paul is encouraging obedience to God’s way, and a leaving behind of the man-made ways and traditions of this world. Paul also instructs the Corinthians, also a Gentile congregation, to continue in the ordinances that he has taught them.  If God’s ordinances passed away with the death of Christ, why would Paul be teaching them and asking the first Christians to continue in them?  Again, the truth shines brightly that these things have continued since they were originally given by God.

“Now I praise you, brethren, that ye remember me in all things, and keep the ordinances, as I delivered them to you.” ~ 1 Corinthians 11:2

We can see that God’s Sabbaths, New Moons, and Holy Days/Feasts all rely on the Moon and the Sun to mark their times, rather than the calender created by men in Rome.  God’s calendar was simple to abide by, and could even be used by the Israelites wandering 40 years through the wilderness in open land.


You may be wondering, how have we come through so much time and have been thrown so far off track from God’s Calendar?  We can look to prophecy to show us that because of the disbelief of the people and their unwillingness to obey God’s laws, he caused man to forget his times.  The hearts of God’s people were cold and hardened:

“The Lord was as an enemy: he hath swallowed up Israel, he hath swallowed up all her palaces: he hath destroyed his strong holds, and hath increased in the daughter of Judah mourning and lamentation. And he hath violently taken away his tabernacle, as if it were of a garden: he hath destroyed his places of the assembly: the Lord hath caused the solemn feasts and sabbaths to be forgotten in Zion, and hath despised in the indignation of his anger the king and the priest.” ~ Lamentations 2:5-6

I will also cause all her mirth to cease, her feast days, her new moons, and her sabbaths, and all her solemn feasts.” ~ Hosea 2:11

Because my people hath forgotten me, they have burned incense to vanity, and they have caused them to stumble in their ways from the ancient paths, to walk in paths, in a way not cast up.” ~ Jeremiah 18:15

“Thus saith the Lord, Stand ye in the ways, and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls. But they said, We will not walk therein. Also I set watchmen over you, saying, Hearken to the sound of the trumpet. But they said, We will not hearken. Therefore hear, ye nations, and know, O congregation, what is among them. Hear, O earth: behold, I will bring evil upon this people, even the fruit of their thoughts, because they have not hearkened unto my words, nor to my law, but rejected it.” ~ Jeremiah 6:16-19

The Book of Jubilees is not included in the bible as an “inspired book”, yet it was highly accessible to the first Christians.  This book has been quoted by EpiphaniusJustin MartyrOrigenDiodorus of TarsusIsidore of AlexandriaIsidore of SevilleEutychius of AlexandriaJohn MalalasGeorge Syncellus, and George Kedrenos, all early Christians- indicating that it was a widely known book then.  For some reason, in the 4th century AD, it was thoroughly suppressed and some believe it was systematically destroyed leaving no complete copy in Hebrew, Greek or Latin. A manuscript of the Book of Jubilees was also found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.  Below are some significant prophecies from this book that help to specify what would happen concerning the appointed times:

“And command thou the children of Israel that they observe the years according to this reckoning- three hundred and sixty-four days, and (these) will constitute a complete year, and they will not disturb its time from its days and from its feasts; for everything will fall out in them according to their testimony, and they will not leave out any day nor disturb any feasts. But if they do neglect and do not observe them according to His commandment, then they will disturb all their seasons and the years will be dislodged from this (order), [and they will disturb the seasons and the years will be dislodged] and they will neglect their ordinances. And all the children of Israel will forget and will not find the path of the years, and will forget the new moons, and seasons, and sabbaths and they will go wrong as to all the order of the years. For I know and from henceforth will I declare it unto thee, and it is not of my own devising; for the book (lies) written before me, and on the heavenly tablets the division of days is ordained, lest they forget the feasts of the covenant and walk according to the feasts of the Gentiles after their error and after their ignorance. For there will be those who will assuredly make observations of the moon -how (it) disturbs the seasons and comes in from year to year ten days too soon. For this reason the years will come upon them when they will disturb (the order), and make an abominable (day) the day of testimony, and an unclean day a feast day, and they will confound all the days, the holy with the unclean, and the unclean day with the holy; for they will go wrong as to the months and sabbaths and feasts and jubilees. For this reason I command and testify to thee that thou mayst testify to them; for after thy death thy children will disturb (them), so that they will not make the year three hundred and sixty-four days only, and for this reason they will go wrong as to the new moons and seasons and sabbaths and festivals, and they will eat all kinds of blood with all kinds of flesh.” ~ The Book of Jubilees 6:32-38

“And many will perish and they will be taken captive, and will fall into the hands of the enemy, because they have forsaken My ordinances and My commandments, and the festivals of My covenant, and My sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, that I should set my name upon it, and that it should dwell (there)……And I will send witnesses unto them, that I may witness against them, but they will not hear, and will slay the witnesses also, and they will persecute those who seek the law, and they will abrogate and change everything so as to work evil before My eyes.” ~ Book of Jubilees 1:9, 11

“And they will forget all My law and all My commandments and all My judgments, and will go astray as to new moons, and sabbaths, and festivals, and jubilees, and ordinances. And after this they will turn to Me from amongst the Gentiles with all their heart and with all their soul and with all their strength, and I will gather them from amongst all the Gentiles, and they will seek me, so that I shall be found of them, when they seek me with all their heart and with all their soul.” ~ Book of Jubilees 1:13-14

“Behold the earth shall be destroyed on account of all their works, and there shall be no seed of the vine, and no oil; for their works are altogether faithless, and they shall all perish together, beasts and cattle and birds, and all the fish of the sea, on account of the children of men. And they shall strive one with another, the young with the old, and the old with the young, the poor with the rich, the lowly with the great, and the beggar with the prince, on account of the law and the covenant; for they have forgotten commandment, and covenant, and feasts, and months, and Sabbaths, and jubilees, and all judgments. And they shall stand (with bows) and swords and war to turn them back into the way; but they shall not return until much blood has been shed on the earth, one by another. And those who have escaped shall not return from their wickedness to the way of righteousness, but they shall all exalt themselves to deceit and wealth, that they may each take all that is his neighbour’s, and they shall name the great name, but not in truth and not in righteousness, and they shall defile the holy of holies with their uncleanness and the corruption of their pollution. And a great punishment shall befall the deeds of this generation from the Lord, and He will give them over to the sword and to judgment and to captivity, and to be plundered and devoured. And He will wake up against them the sinners of the Gentiles, who have neither mercy nor compassion, and who shall respect the person of none, neither old nor young, nor any one, for they are more wicked and strong to do evil than all the children of men.And they shall use violence against Israel and transgression against Jacob, And much blood shall be shed upon the earth, And there shall be none to gather and none to bury.In those days they shall cry aloud, And call and pray that they may be saved from the hand of the sinners, the Gentiles; But none shall be saved.And the heads of the children shall be white with grey hair,And a child of three weeks shall appear old like a man of one hundred years, And their stature shall be destroyed by tribulation and oppression. And in those days the children shall begin to study the laws, And to seek the commandmentsAnd to return to the path of righteousness. And the days shall begin to grow many and increase amongst those children of men Till their days draw nigh to one thousand years. And to a greater number of years than (before) was the number of the days. And there shall be no old man Nor one who is <not> satisfied with his days, For all shall be (as) children and youths. And all their days they shall complete and live in peace and in joy, And there shall be no Satan nor any evil destroyer; For all their days shall be days of blessing and healing.” ~ Jubilees 23:18-25

You can see that because of the coldness of heart of many of God’s “people”, he caused them to forget about his times.  In Jeremiah 6, it even says “Hearken to the sound of the trumpet” meaning the beginning of God’s months, but they said “We will not hearken.”  What a devistating realization, that for almost 2,000 years God’s times and seasons have been forgotten.  There is also prophecy that God’s times will again come back one day:

“And they that shall be of thee shall build the old waste places: thou shalt raise up the foundations of many generations; and thou shalt be called, The repairer of the breach, The restorer of paths to dwell in. If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day; and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honourable; and shalt honour him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words” ~ Isaiah 58:12-13

And in Isaiah’s prophecy of the new heaven and new earth that is coming, he mentions:

“For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, shall remain before me, saith the Lord, so shall your seed and your name remain. And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the Lord.” ~ Isaiah 66:22-23

You can see here that in the kingdom that is coming, the new moon and the sabbath will still be honored, as they should be honored today in obedience to the ordinances of God.  Zephaniah also speaks of the “end times”, and makes a reference to those that mourn for the “Mo-ed”, appointed times saying that He “will gather them”:

I will gather them that are sorrowful for the solemn assembly (Mo-ed), who are of thee, to whom the reproach of it was a burden.” ~ Zephaniah 3:18

Read the entire book of Zephaniah and you will see that he speaks about the time of the end of the age. Why would this group be sorrowful for the solemn assembly? We know according to other prophecies, that the appointed times would be forgotten, and they have been forgotten.  Today we celebrate the feasts of the Gentiles (Lent, Christmas, Easter, Advent, Valentines Day, Groundhogs Day, Good Friday etc) according to our own ignorance, and not rooted in truth.  Ask yourself- “Am I sorrowful for the solemn assemblies/Moed (New Moons, Sabbaths, Passover, Feast of Unleavened Bread, Feast of Firstfruits, Feast of Weeks, Feast of Trumpets, Day of Atonement, Feast of Tabernacles, Jubilees) that have all been forgotten?”  “Will I be among those gathered by God?”  The book of Nahum also speaks of the time of the end and admonishes- “Keep thy solemn feasts.”

“What do ye imagine against the Lord? he will make an utter end: affliction shall not rise up the second time…………………Behold upon the mountains the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace! O Judah, keep thy solemn feasts, perform thy vows: for the wicked shall no more pass through thee; he is utterly cut off.” ~ Nahum 1:9, 15

The prophets have spoken for Yahweh and have been clear all along.  We are to return to the paths of righteousness, the paths to dwell in- by obeying God’s commandment to come before Him at His own assigned appointed times, not at our own man-made appointed times.


In the ancient Apocraphal book of Ecclesiasticus, we can also find references to the purpose of the moon.  This is an ancient Jewish book that was kept by the Jews of the Old Testament.

“And then the moon, ever punctual to mark the times, an everlasting sign: It is the moon that signals the feasts, a luminary that wanes after being full.  The month derives its name from hers, she waxes wonderfully in her phases, banner of the hosts on high, shining in the vault of heaven.” ~ Ecclesiasticus 43:6-9

“And the course of the path of the moon is light to the righteous and darkness to the sinners in the name of the Lord, Who made a separation between the light and the darknessAnd divided the spirits of menBook of Enoch Ch XLI Verse 8

The most specific readings that can be found on the moon and it’s functions can be found in the Book of Enoch, where the track of the moon is specifically laid out. Keep in mind, the earliest known manuscript for this book dates to around 300BC but all indications point to this book existing long before that:

“And I saw another course, a law for her, [and] how according to that law she performs her monthly revolution. And all these Uriel, the holy angel who is the leader of them all, showed to me, and their positions, and I wrote down their positions as he showed them to me, and I wrote down their months as they were, and the appearance of their lights till fifteen days were accomplished. In single seventh parts she accomplishes all her light in the east, and in single seventh parts accomplishes all her darkness in the west. And in certain months she alters her settings, and in certain months she pursues her own peculiar course. In two months the moon sets with the sun: in those two middle portals the third and the fourth. She goes forth for seven days, and turns about and returns again through the portal where the sun rises, and accomplishes all her light: and she recedes from the sun, and in eight days enters the sixth portal from which the sun goes forth. And when the sun goes forth from the fourth portal she goes forth seven days, until she goes forth from the fifth and turns back again in seven days into the fourth portal and accomplishes all her light: and she recedes and enters into the first portal in eight days. And she returns again in seven days into the fourth portal from which the sun goes forth. Thus I saw their position -how the moons rose and the sun set in those days. And if five years are added together the sun has an overplus of thirty days, and all the days which accrue to it for one of those five years, when they are full, amount to 364 days. And the overplus of the sun and of the stars amounts to six days: in 5 years 6 days every year come to 30 days: and the moon falls behind the sun and stars to the number of 30 days. And the sun and the stars bring in all the years exactly, so that they do not advance or delay their position by a single day unto eternity; but complete the years with perfect justice in 364 days. In 3 years there are 1,092 days, and in 5 years 1,820 days, so that in 8 years there are 2,912 days. For the moon alone the days amount in 3 years to 1,062 days, and in 5 years she falls 50 days behind: {i.e. to the sum [of 1,770] there is to be added [1,000 and] 62 days.} And in 5 years there are 1,770 days, so that for the moon the days in 8 years amount to 2,832 days. {For in 8 years she falls behind to the amount of 80 days}, all the days she falls behind in 8 years are 80. And the year is accurately completed in conformity with their world-stations and the stations of the sun, which rise from the portals through which it [the sun] rises and sets 30 days.” ~ Enoch 73

There are additional texts concerning the moon that can be found in Enoch 74-78 and we encourage you to read and study these writings.



In the book of Chronicles you can find the story of a righteous King Hezekiah who desired to turn back to God’s laws and ways.  Below explains how he sanctified the kingdom:

“Now they began on the first day of the first month to sanctify, and on the eighth day of the month came they to the porch of the Lord: so they sanctified the house of the Lord in eight days; and in the sixteenth day of the first month they made an end.” ~ 2 Chronicles 29:17

As you can see, the sanctification began on the first day of the month, on a “New Moon” day.  Then on the 8th of the month they came to the “porch of the Lord”.  The 8th would be a sabbath day according to God’s calendar and they are recorded as gathring at the porch of the Lord.  Then on the 16th day of the first month they “made an end” meaning it was done.  According to God’s calendar, the 15th would have been the sabbath, and of course on the 16th they would have “made an end”.


In the beginning of Exodus 16, Moses and the Israelites reach the “wilderness of sin” and they began to murmer:

“And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt. And the whole congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness.” ~ Exodus 16:1-2

The 15th according to God’s calendar would be a Sabbath.  It is interesting what happens next.  After their murmering, God tells Moses to tell the people that he will rain bread on these people, and on the 6th day they will collect enough for two days (because the 7th would again be a Sabbath to the Lord):

“And the children of Israel said unto them, Would to God we had died by the hand of the Lord in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh pots, and when we did eat bread to the full; for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger. Then said the Lord unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no. And it shall come to pass, that on the sixth day they shall prepare that which they bring in; and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily.” ~ Exodus 16:3-5

The next verse that follows first shows evidence that the 15th of the 2nd month was a Sabbath, and also provides evidence that that the 22nd of the 2nd month would be a Sabbath:

“And Moses and Aaron said unto all the children of Israel, At even, then ye shall know that the Lord hath brought you out from the land of Egypt: And in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the Lord; for that he heareth your murmurings against the Lord: and what are we, that ye murmur against us? And Moses said, This shall be, when the Lord shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that the Lord heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against him: and what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against the Lord.”Exodus 16:6-8

Remember that this all was happening on the 15th day of the 2nd month.  God did not provide the food until “at even” on the 15th.  The 15th was a Sabbath and would restrict the people from collecting food.  Sabbath Days according the bible went from evening to evening.  God did not send the food until the Sabbath, the 15th, was over “at even”.  Then they were instructed to collect for 6 days, and on the 6th day they were instructed to collect enough for two days so as to not labor on the Sabbath.  This would put the next Sabbath again on the 22nd day of the 2nd month.  So you can see the consistency of God’s calendar in the scriptures.



Another key example that points to lunar calendation for the Sabbaths comes with the example of Joshua in the battle of Jericho.  There we can see that God commanded Joshua and the people to march around the city of Jericho for seven consecutive days.  At first glance, one may think that God commanded them to violate one of the commandments of the covenant (the commandment of the Sabbath), yet a closer look reveals what was really happening.

“And the Lord said unto Joshua, See, I have given into thine hand Jericho, and the king thereof, and the mighty men of valour. And ye shall compass the city, all ye men of war, and go round about the city once. Thus shalt thou do six days. And seven priests shall bear before the ark seven trumpets of rams’ horns: and the seventh day ye shall compass the city seven times, and the priests shall blow with the trumpets.” ~ Joshua 6:2-4

It would appear that one of these seven consecutive days would have been the Sabbath and God was requiring the people to disobey the sabbath as they armed themselves for battle every single day that they marched around Jericho.  How can this be, that God would command the people to disobey a commandment of the covenant thus contradicting himself?  The answer can be found in the Book of Jasher.  The book of Jasher is mentioned in scripture two different times, making it a relevant historic Jewish book:

“And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.” ~ Joshua 10:13 (Speaking of the 7th day)

 “(Also he bade them teach the children of Judah the use of the bow: behold, it is written in the book of Jasher.)” ~ 2 Samuel 1:18

So you can see that the Book of Jasher was a well known book to the early Israelites.  When we read the book of Jasher, we can receive insight into exactly when Joshua was commanded to march around Jericho:

“And it was in the second month, on the first day of the month, that the Lord said to Joshua, Rise up, behold I have given Jericho into thy hand with all the people thereof; and all your fighting men shall go round the city, once each day, thus shall you do for six days. And the priests shall blow upon trumpets, and when you shall hear the sound of the trumpet, all the people shall give a great shouting, that the walls of the city shall fall down; all the people shall go up every man against his opponent. And Joshua did so according to all that the Lord had commanded him. And on the seventh day they went round the city seven times, and the priests blew upon trumpets.” ~ Book of Jasher 88:14-17

So you can see here, that the first day of the seven day march, was on the first day of the second month, also known as the New Moon Day.  According to the luni-solar calendar, the first day of the month would always be a New Moon Day (day 1), followed by six working days (days 2-7), and again followed by a sabbath (day 8).  You can see now, that God did command Joshua to march for seven consecutive days, all while never commanding them to disobey the sabbath day commandment.  These stories when examined line upon line reveal the creator’s true calendar, and His true sabbaths.



“Moreover Solomon hallowed the middle of the court that was before the house of the Lord: for there he offered burnt offerings, and the fat of the peace offerings, because the brasen altar which Solomon had made was not able to receive the burnt offerings, and the meat offerings, and the fat. Also at the same time Solomon kept the feast seven days, and all Israel with him, a very great congregation, from the entering in of Hamath unto the river of Egypt. And in the eighth day they made a solemn assembly: for they kept the dedication of the altar seven days, and the feast seven days. And on the three and twentieth day of the seventh month he sent the people away into their tents, glad and merry in heart for the goodness that the Lord had shewed unto David, and to Solomon, and to Israel his people.” ~ 2 Chronicles 7:6-10

The above is a classic example of how the calendar worked in ancient Israel.  You can see here that in the dedication of the temple, there were two seven day periods acknowledged- the “dedication of the altar” 7 days, and the feast for 7 days.  We also can see that “in the eighth day was a solemn assembly”, and we can deduce that on the 23rd day everyone was sent away.  Counting backwards you can get a clear picture of where these events fell on a calendar.  This took place in the seventh month as this was the Feast of Tabernacles.  The Feast of Tabernacles is always in the seventh month on the 15th day of the month, and it lasts seven days.

The count looks like this:  The Seven Day dedication of the Altar began on the 8th (A Sabbath), and continued for day 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 of the seventh month.  The Feast of Tabernacles would fall on the 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, and 21st days of the seventh month.  The “8th Day” where they would have a holy convocation is the sabbath day and would fall on the 22nd day of the seventh month.  Finally on the 23rd day of the seventh month, King Solomon sent everyone home.  You can see how the Creator’s calendar was perfectly honored in this dedication of the temple of YHVH.  Additional testimony of this event gives insight into how days were counted:

“And at that time Solomon held a feast, and all Israel with him, a great congregation, from the entering in of Hamath unto the river of Egypt, before the Lord our God, seven days and seven days, even fourteen days. On the eighth day he sent the people away: and they blessed the king, and went unto their tents joyful and glad of heart for all the goodness that the Lord had done for David his servant, and for Israel his people.” ~ 1 Kings 8:65-66

Notice this account, which refers to the 8th day as being the day King Solomon sent the people away.  We know from 2 Chronicles that this day that King Solomon sent the people away was the 23rd day of the month, yet here in 1 Kings, this 23rd day of the month is referred to as the 8th day.  This would mean that the 22nd day was the 7th day (Sabbath).  Notice how they grouped weeks in this account referencing “seven days and seven days”.  The “seventh day” is synonimous with “sabbath” in scripture.  In this account, sabbaths in this case would have occurred on the 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th of the month.  These are the exact same dates referenced for sabbath in the Exodus account.  On a perpetual week system, it is highly improbable that sabbath would have fallen on these exact days.


The account in the book of John also indicates a lunar sabbath.  When we look to John 7-9, we see first that Jesus spoke to the people on the last day of the Feast of Tabernacles:

In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink.” ~ John 7:37

The Feast of Tabernacles was a seven day feast beginning on the 15th day of the Seventh Month every year.  The first day was a holy convocation, and the 8th day (The day after the last day of the feast) was said to also be a holy convocation (See Leviticus 23:34-36).  This last day of the feast would be on the 21st day of the Seventh Month.  Then again in John 8, we find that the very next day (the 22nd Day) Jesus was back in the temple teaching:

“Jesus went unto the mount of Olives. And early in the morning he came again into the temple, and all the people came unto him; and he sat down, and taught them.” ~ John 8:1-2

Jesus continues teaching on the 22nd Day for the entirety of Chapter 8, and on into Chapter 9.  You will find that in Chapter 9, Jesus heals a blind man by making mud and putting it onto the blind man’s eyes.

“When he had thus spoken, he spat on the ground, and made clay of the spittle, and he anointed the eyes of the blind man with the clay ~ John 9:6

This angered the Pharisees because this was the Sabbath day.  According to them Jesus performed work, and this was unlawful.  We know that this was a sabbath day because the scripture tells us that it was the sabbath:

And it was the sabbath day when Jesus made the clay, and opened his eyes” ~ John 9:14

From these texts, we can see that all of this happened on the day after the last day of the Feast of Tabernacles (21st Day of the Seventh Month- See Leviticus 23 indicating that this is a 7 day feast).  This would mean that the day of this healing performed by Jesus was the 22nd Day of the Seventh Month- also revealed to be a Sabbath Day in the scriptures.  A Sabbath on the 22nd Day of the Seventh Month is consistent with a Lunar Sabbath System.


We know from scriptures that Jesus was Crucified and placed in the tomb on the Day of Passover- the 14th Day of the First Month.

“And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished all these sayings, he said unto his disciples, Ye know that after two days is the feast of the passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified.” ~ Matthew 26:1-2

Here Jesus prophecies himself of his death on the day of Passover.  The night hours prior to the beginning of the Passover day is when Jesus sat down for the last supper with His disciples.  During the night hours, Jesus prayed in the Garden of Gethsemane, and before daylight He was betrayed and taken into custody.  On that very day of Passover (the 14th Day), Jesus was crucified beginning at the 3rd hour and ending at the 9th hour of that day.  They took his body down and buried it in a tomb quickly because the following day was the High Sabbath of Unleavened Bread.

“The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.” ~ John 19:31

Here we can see that Jesus and the other men were taken down from the cross that very day so that they would not be “upon the cross” the next day which was a High Sabbath.  The 15th Day is identified in this verse as the Sabbath Day.  Here is understanding: Jesus rose on the third day as prophecied.  Gregorian calendar keepers have argued that Jesus had to be in the grave for 3 days and 3 nights, yet the testimony of the bible indicates otherwise when examined line upon line.  Jesus was prophecied of rising on the “third day” 14 different times (Hosea 6:2, Matthew 16:21; 17:23; 20:19; 27:64; Mark 9:31; 10:34; Luke 9:22; 13:32; 18:33; 24:7; 24:21; 24:46; Acts 10:40; 1 Corinthians 15:4).  You are probably wondering- why would there also be a reference to 3 days and 3 nights (sign of Jonah)?  This reference to days and nights was used interchangeably in scripture along with a reference to mere days.  For example looking to Esther:

“Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day: I also and my maidens will fast likewise; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law: and if I perish, I perish.” ~ Esther 4:16

“Now it came to pass on the third day, that Esther put on her royal apparel, and stood in the inner court of the king’s house, over against the king’s house: and the king sat upon his royal throne in the royal house, over against the gate of the house.” ~ Esther 5:1

You can see the reference to 3 days and nights, and the reference to the third day are one in the same in this example from Esther.  The biblical testimony points to Jesus being crucified on the Passover (14th), In the grave on the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread (high Sabbath of the 15th), and rising on the third day which was the day after the Sabbath (16th) also know as the Day of Firstfruits.

The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre. Then she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him.” ~ John 20:1-2

“And that day was the preparation, and the sabbath drew on. And the women also, which came with him from Galilee, followed after, and beheld the sepulchre, and how his body was laid. And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the sabbath day according to the commandment.” ~ Luke 23:54-56

“And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath ~ Mark 15:42

“And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him. And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun. And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre? And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great. And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted. And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him.” ~ Mark 16:1-6

Here again, not only was the first day of Unleavened Bread a Sabbath, but it was a high Sabbath.  This always fell on the 15th Day of the First Month.  This can only occur on a Lunar Calendar System.  Mark mentions the day before Sabbath, and the day after the Sabbath in Mark 15 and 16.  He does not mention two sabbaths, rather just one.  Some Saturday Sabbath keepers say that Jesus was in the grave for 3 nights and 3 days, indicating that the 17th day was a “Saturday Sabbath.”  With this reasoning, then one must realize that the 10th day would have also been a sabbath, yet this was the day that Jesus rode into Jerusalem on the donkey, and also is the day that the people of Israel would select the passover lamb.  Those that weren’t animal owners, would purchase a passover lamb on this day.  The 10th day of the first month was a commanded “work-day” by God forever.  Ask yourself, if God instituted perpetual sabbaths from the beginning of time, how could he assign any day of the lunar month to be a commanded work-day forever when it would sometimes fall on a Sabbath?  The 14th day of the 1st month was also known as the “Preparation Day”, also a day of work.  If God instituted perpetual weeks, how can it be that the people would prepare on a day that will sometimes fall on a Sabbath?  Is God contradicting his own law?  I think not.  Rather God’s calendar is very different from today’s perpetual Gregorian calendar.  Some try using references to Friday, Saturday, or Sunday when speaking of these events, yet such a reckoning of days did not exist in Jerusalem at Jesus’ time.  The day that Jesus was first seen is noted in the book of John as the “first day of the week” (aka the day after the Sabbath).  This would have been on the 16th day of the first month, also known as the “Day of Firstfruits”- in fulfilment to the type of this feast.  At the end of the first day of the week, Jesus appeared to all of the disciples with the exception of Thomas who wasn’t present.  It wasn’t until eight days later that Jesus appeared again to the disciples and Thomas.


There is another reference in scripture that indicates a lunar sabbath system.  Let’s look at Luke 6:

“And it came to pass on the second sabbath after the first, that he went through the corn fields; and his disciples plucked the ears of corn, and did eat, rubbing them in their hands.” ~ Luke 6:1

Here you can see the reference to the “second sabbath”….after the first sabbath.  In a perpetual week system, you wouldn’t number your weeks or sabbaths, as they continue on forever, but on a Lunar System, each month will have four sabbaths- the first, second, third and fourth.  Here again is proof of a Lunar Sabbath System.


Another example of lunar calendation can be found in Acts 5 where Paul traveled to Traos after the days of Unleavened Bread:

“And we sailed away from Philippi after the days of unleavened bread, and came unto them to Troas in five days; where we abode seven days. And upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow; and continued his speech until midnight.” ~ Acts :6-7

As you can see here, Paul traveled after the days of Unleavened Bread (Unleavened Bread lasted from day 15-21) for five days- which would be the day 22, 23, 24, 25, and 26 arriving in Traos on the 26th day.  There he stayed for seven days and from the text, we know the seventh day in Traos was also the 1st day of the week (known in scripture to be the 1st “working day” of the week).  These days play out as follows: The first day in Traos (26), second (27), third (28), fourth (29), fifth (30), sixth (New Moon Day), and seventh (1st Day of the week).  Paul then departed on the morrow after the 1st day of the week.


An early Christian writing that was written by Clement of Alexandria is known as “The Preaching of Peter.” It is known to be written between 100-150AD, and is a collection of fragments that had been preserved.  What is interesting, is Peter’s mention of how neither the Greeks or the Jews “knew” God.  He goes on to explain that the Greeks would make gods of items that were subservient to them such as silver, gold, wood, etc. They would also sacrifice animals to dead gods that didn’t really exist. In speaking on the Jews, he mentions that they also didn’t know God, in that they were worshiping creation rather than the creator- found in their moon worship.  Rather than seeing the moon as a time marker/a sign for the seasons and appointed times, they worshiped it as a God.  If they couldn’t sight the sign of the new moon, they wouldn’t honor the new moons, “the first sabbath” or even the feast days:

“He will continue again in this fashion: Neither worship ye him as do the Jews, for they, who suppose that they alone know God, do not know him, serving angels and archangels, the month and the moon: and if no moon be seen, they do not celebrate what is called the first sabbath, nor keep the new moon, nor the days of unleavened bread, nor the feast (of tabernacles?), nor the great day (of atonement).” ~ The Preaching of Peter

It seems here he indicates that the Jews were waiting for the first crescent sighting, a practice traced back to Babylon and tied to moon worship, rather than the conjunction as stated later on this page by Philo of Alexandria. Failure to sight the moon resulted in no holy convocations of new moon, Sabbath, or the feasts. Peter indicates because of this they don’t know God. The moon isn’t a God, it is a time piece in His creation to mark his times, that is all. It is a celestial body in the heavens, not to be worshiped or served. The Jews viewed the sighting of the moon as more important, than the honoring of God’s appointed times. Notice he indicates that the “FIRST SABBATH” is tied to the moon. This is only possibly using a lunar system, and is foreign to today’s reckoning of Sabbath. This also coincides with the Luke 6:1 “SECOND SABBATH” terminology.

There are other examples that we will add over time to this page.  You can see a major difference in the time we know today, and the time that was kept in ancient times.  We are called to return to the ancient ways, and old paths of God.

Below is God’s Calendar as it was given in the bible:

Luni-Solar Calendar with Feasts Days

You can use this link “Lunar Animation” to see how the phases of the moon can be viewed from the earth, and how the half moon, full moon, half moon and no moon mark the Sabbath Days.  Another tool that will help greatly in determining conjunction by examining moon rise and sun rise times can be found at this US Navy Site.  So you may be wondering how God’s calendar is different from the present day Gregorian calendar.  The major difference is that each month is marked by the new moon, and there is no perpetual seven day week in the creator’s calendar.  Rather, the moon marks 4 weeks per month by it’s four phases (each lasting 7 days)- half moon, full moon, half moon, no moon- resetting every month at the New Moon.  In other words, whenever the new moon comes, the new month begins and the weeks reset with the New Moon representing day 1 of the month, and making the 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th day of the month Sabbaths.  On todays Gregorian calender, this means that the Sabbath will rotate every month to a different day.  For example, let’s say the Gregorian Sunday is the sabbath according to the Creator’s calendar.  Now let’s say that the following month, the new moon conjunction occurs on the night prior to Tuesday.  This would make Tuesday the New Moon day and for that entire month, Tuesday would be God’s holy sabbath marked by His light in the sky- the Moon.  This also means at the end of every month there are two special days- the last sabbath of the month, and the New Moon of the following month.  Do you see the dilemma that awaits Christians whose eyes become opened to the truth?


Christians who observe a Saturday Sabbath commonly believe that the Jews have always kept perfect track of when the true Sabbath occurs. The reasoning is this: “The Jews would never worship on any other day but the true Sabbath, therefore, because they themselves worship on Saturday that must be the true Sabbath of the Bible.”  Some Jews today do admit that the true Sabbath has a lunar connection, however, the Jewish forefathers of the 4th century AD deliberately and knowingly changed the calendar by which the true Sabbath was calculated at the forced hand of Rome. The following quotes, taken from Jewish scholars and historians are but a small sampling of the evidence available to support the fact that the Jews, by their own admission, changed the calendar established by God at Creation and reestablished by Moses.

Philo of Alexandria

Philo was a prominent Jew living in Egypt from the time of 20BC to aproximately 60AD.  He lived during the time of a great Jewish Massacre in Egypt, and was selected by the Jews to go to the emporer to represent them- revealing that he was highly respected by the Jews at the time of Christ.  The ordinances of the Sabbath at the time of Philo, would be the same as the ordinances Jesus was obedient to, as Jews no matter where they lived abided according to the same calendar, and honored the same feasts at the same times, also traveling to Jerusalem for the special feasts.  His writings reveal some interesting truths about the “week”, and the true 7th day sabbath of 2,000 years ago:

“…(106) {23}{#ex 12:3.} in order that from the tenth, there may be consecrated to the tenth, that is to God, the sacrifices which have been preserved in the soul, which is illuminated in two portions out of the three, until it is entirely changed in every part, and becomes a heavenly brilliancy like a full moon, at the height of its increase at the end of the second week, and so is able not only to guard, but even to sacrifice uninjured and faultless improvements, that is to say, propitiations.” ~ On the Contemplative Life- Philo- XIX

The following reveals that the 15th day of both the first month, and the seventh month (These were the beginning of the holy feasts of Unleavened Bread, and Tabernacles) were 7th day sabbaths- only possible on a Lunar Calendar:

”(159) But to the seventh day of the week he has assigned the greatest festivals, those of the longest duration, at the periods of the equinox both vernal and autumnal and autumnal in each year; appointing two festivals for these two epochs, each lasting seven days; the one which takes place in the spring being for the perfection of what is being sown, and the one which falls in autumn being a feast of thanksgiving for the bringing home of all the fruits which the trees have produce” ~ The Decalogue- Philo- XXX (Referring to the Feast of Unleavened Bread, and the Feast of Tabernacles- both begining on the 15th day of the 1st and 7th months- only possible on a luni-solar calendar)

“The fourth commandment has reference to the sacred seventh day, that it may be passed in a sacred and Holy manner. Now, some states keep the Holy festival only once in the month, counting from the New moon, as a day sacred to YaHuWaH: but the nation of the Jews keep every seventh day regularly, after each interval of six workdays.” (Counting from the New moon). ~ The Decalogue, Philo page 526 xx (96). .

“(60) They were also created to serve as measure of time; for it is by the appointed periodical revolutions of the sun and moon and other stars, that days and months and years are determined. And moreover it is owing to them that the most useful of all things, the nature of number exists, time having displayed it; for from one day comes the limit, and from two the number two, and from three, three, and from the notion of a month is derived the number thirty, and from a year that number which is equal to the days of the twelve months, and from infinite time comes the notion of infinite number. (61) To such great and indispensable advantages do the natures of the heavenly bodies and the motions of the stars tend. And to how many other things might I also affirm that they contribute which are as yet unknown to us? for all things are not known to the will of man; but of the things which contribute towards the durability of the universe, those which are established by laws and ordinances which God has appointed to be unalterable for ever, are accomplished in every instance and in every country.” ~ Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation

“XXXIV. (101) Among the things then which are perceptible only by intellect, the number seven is proved to be the only thing free from motion and accident; but among things perceptible by the external senses, it displays a great and comprehensive power, contributing to the improvement of all terrestrial things, and affecting even the periodical changes of the moon. And in what manner it does this, we must consider. The number seven when compounded of numbers beginning with the unit, makes eight-and-twenty, a perfect number, and one equalised in its parts. And the number so produced, is calculated to reproduce the revolutions of the moon, bringing her back to the point from which she first began to increase in a manner perceptible by the external senses, and to which she returns by waning. For she increases from her first crescent-shaped figure, to that of a half circle in seven days; and in seven more, she becomes a full orb; and then again she turns back, retracing the same path, like a runner of the diaulos, {6}{this refers to the Greek games. “The straight race was called stadion or dromos. In the diaulos dromos the runners turned round the goal, and came back to the starting place.”ùSmith in v. Stadium.} receding from an orb full of light, to a half circle again in seven days, and lastly, in an equal number she diminishes from a half circle to the form of a crescent; and thus the number before mentioned is completed. (102) And the number seven by those persons who are in the habit of employing names with strict propriety is called the perfecting number; because by it, everything is perfected.” ~ Philo of Alexandria- On The Creation

“(57) For whatever is best among the objects of the external senses, the things by means of which the seasons of the year and the revolutions of time are brought to perfection in their appointed order, partake of the number seven. I mean that there are seven planets; that the stars of the Bear are seven, that the Pleiads are seven, and the revolutions of the moon when increasing and waning, and the orderly well-regulated circuits of the other bodies, the beauty of which exceeds all description. (58) But Moses, from a most honourable cause, called it consummation and perfection; attributing to the number six the origination of all the parts of the world, and to the number seven their perfection; for the number six is an oddeven number, being composed of twice three, having the odd number for the male and the even number for the female, from the union of which, production takes place in accordance with the unalterable laws of nature. (59) But the number seven is free from all such commixture, and is, if one must speak plainly, the light of the number six; for what the number six engendered, that the number seven displayed when brought to perfection. In reference to which fact it may properly be called the birthday of the world, as the day in which the work of the Father, being exhibited as perfect with all its parts perfect, was commanded to rest and abstain from all works. (60) Not that the law is the adviser of idleness, for it is always accustoming its followers to submit to hardships, and training them to labour, and it hates those who desire to be indolent and idle; at all events, it expressly commands us to labour diligently for six days, {9}{#ex 20:9.} but in order to give some remission from uninterrupted and incessant toil, it refreshes the body with seasons of moderate relaxation exactly measured out, so as to renew it again for fresh works. For those who take breath in this way, I am speaking not merely about private individuals but even about athletes, collect fresh strength, and with more vigorous power, without any shrinking and with great endurance, encounter everything that must be done. (61) And the works meant are those enjoined by precepts and doctrines in accordance with virtue. And in the day he exhorts us to apply ourselves to philosophy, improving our souls and the dominant part of us, our mind. (62) Accordingly, on the seventh day there are spread before the people in every city innumerable lessons of prudence, and temperance, and courage, and justice, and all other virtues; during the giving of which the common people sit down, keeping silence and pricking up their ears, with all possible attention, from their thirst for wholesome instruction; but some of those who are very learned explain to them what is of great importance and use, lessons by which the whole of their lives may be improved.” ~ Philo of Alexandria- The Special Laws II

“(177) After he had ordered these things concerning the seventh day, he said that for the new moons it is necessary to offer ten whole burntofferings in all: two young bulls, one ram, seven lambs. For since the month is perfect in which the moon makes its way through its cycle, he thought that a perfect number of animals should be Sacrificed.{22}{an alternative would be to understand teleion as a predicate adjective and supply an einai which would mean “that the number of animals to be sacrificed should be perfect.” The absence of a definite article before “perfect number” suggests the translation in the text is preferable.} (178) The number ten is the completely perfect number which he most appropriately assigned to the animals which have been mentioned: the two young bulls since there are two motions of the moon as it continually runs its double-course–the motion of waxing until full moon and the motion of waning until its conjunction with the sun; one ram since there is one principle of reason by which the moon waxes and wanes in equal intervals, both as it increases and diminishes in illumination; the seven lambs because it receives the perfect shapes in periods of seven days–the half-moon in the first seven day period after its conjunction with the sun, full moon in the second; and when it makes its return again, the first is to half-moon, then it ceases at its conjunction with the sun.” ~ Philo of Alexandria- Special Laws I

“(207) And by the command that the feet of the victim should be washed, it is figuratively shown that we must no longer walk upon the earth, but soar aloft and traverse the air. For the soul of the man who is devoted to God, being eager for truth, springs upward and mounts from earth to heaven; and, being borne on wings, traverses the expanse of the air, being eager to be classed with and to move in concert with the sun, and moon, and all the rest of the most sacred and most harmonious company of the stars, under the immediate command and government of God, who has a kingly authority without any rival, and of which he can never be deprived, in accordance with which he justly governs the universe.” ~ Philo of Alexandria- Special Laws I

“And what else could exhibit to us the days and the nights, and the months and the years, and in short the divisions of time, but the harmonious and inconceivable revolutions of the sun, and moon, and other stars? (91) And what could exhibit the true nature of number, except those same bodies just mentioned in accordance with the observation of the combination of the parts of time? And what else could have cut the paths through the ocean and through such numerous and vast seas, and shown them to navigators, except the changes and periodical appearances of the stars? And wise men have observed, (92) also, an innumerable quantity of other circumstances, and have recorded them, conjecturing from the heavenly bodies the advent of calm weather and of violent storms, and the fertility or barrenness of crops, and the mild or violently hot summers, and whether the winters will be severe or spring-like, whether there will be droughts or abundance of rain, whether the flocks and trees will be fruitful, or on the contrary barren, and all such matters as these. For the signs of every thing on earth are engraved and firmly fixed in heaven.” ~ Philo of Alexandria- Special Laws I

“(233) Nature, therefore, has marked out those periods in every year, which are called the equinoxes, from the state of things which exists at that time, namely, the spring and the autumnal equinox, with such distinctness, that even the most illiterate persons are aware of the equality which then exists between the extent of the days and of the nights. (234) Again, are not the periods of the moon, as she advances and retraces her course, from a crescent to a full circle, and again, from a complete orb to a crescent, also measured by an equality of distances? For as great and as long as the period and amount of her increase is, so also is her diminution, in both respects, as to magnitude and duration, as to the number of days and the size of her orb. (235) And as, in that purest of all essences, heaven, equality is honoured with especial honours, so also is she in the neighbour of heaven, the air. For as the year is portioned out into four divisions, the air is formed by nature to endure changes and alterations at what are called the seasons of the year, and it displays an indescribable regularity in its irregularity; for as the atmosphere is divided by an equal number of months into winter, and spring, and summer, and autumn, it completes the whole year by allotting three months to each season; as, in fact, the very name of the year (eniautos) intimates. For it in itself (autos en autoµ) contains everything, being complete in itself, though otherwise it would not be able to effect this, if it were not aided by the regular revolutions of the seasons of the year. (236) Again, this same equality extends from the heavenly bodies, and from those which are raised on high, to the things upon earth, raising on high its own pure nature, which is akin to the air, and sending downwards its beams like the sun, as a sort of secondary light, (237) for all the things which are inharmonious or irregular among us are caused by inequality, and all those which have in them that regularity which becomes them are the work of equality, which, in the universal essence of the universe, one may fairly call the world, and in cities one may entitle it that best regulated and most excellent of all constitutions, democracy, and in bodies health, and in souls virtue. (238) For, on the contrary, inequality is the cause of diseases and wickednesses; and the existence of the longest lived man of the human race would fail, if he were to attempt to enumerate all the praiseworthy qualities of equality, and of its offspring, justice. In consequence of which it seems to me to be best to be satisfied with what has already been said, which may be sufficient to rouse up the recollection of those persons who are fond of learning, and to leave the remaining circumstances unwritten in their souls, as divine images in a most sacred place.” ~ Philo of Alexandria- Special Laws IV

“(90) But now men living solitarily by themselves as if they were in a desert, or else as if they were mere souls unconnected with the body, and as if they had no knowledge of any city, or village, or house, or in short of any company of men whatever, overlook what appears to the many to be true, and seek for plain naked truth by itself, whom the sacred scripture teaches not to neglect a good reputation, and not to break through any established customs which divine men of greater wisdom than any in our time have enacted or established. (91) For although the seventh day is a lesson to teach us the power which exists in the uncreated God, and also that the creature is entitled to rest from his labours, it does not follow that on that account we may abrogate the laws which are established respecting it, so as to light a fire, or till land, or carry burdens, or bring accusations, or conduct suits at law, or demand a restoration of a deposit, or exact the repayment of a debt, or do any other of the things which are usually permitted at times which are not days of festival. (92) Nor does it follow, because the feast is the symbol of the joy of the soul and of its gratitude towards God, that we are to repudiate the assemblies ordained at the periodical seasons of the year ~ Philo of Alexandria- On The Migration of Abraham (Describes the sabbath as a feast, festival, ordained by seasons of the year- all seasons and feasts are determined by the sun and moon/luni-solar calendar according to scripture.  If the Sabbath was based on a perpetual repeating weekly system, it would continue with complete disregard for “seasons”)

“XXXIX. (209) Moreover, in accordance with the honour due to the Creator of the universe, the prophet hallowed the sacred seventh day, beholding with eyes of more acute sight than those of mortals its pre-eminent beauty, which had already been deeply impressed on the heaven and the whole universal world, and had been borne about as an image by nature itself in her own bosom; (210) for first of all Moses found that day destitute of any mother, and devoid of all participation in the female generation, being born of the Father alone without any propagation by means of seed, and being born without any conception on the part of any mother. And then he beheld not only this, that it was very beautiful and destitute of any mother, neither being born of corruption nor liable to corruption; and then, in the third place, he by further inquiry discovered that it was the birthday of the world, which the heaven keeps as a festival, and the earth and all the things in and on the earth keep as a festival, rejoicing and delighting in the all-harmonious number of seven, and in the sabbath day. (211) For this reason the all-great Moses thought fit that all who were enrolled in his sacred polity should follow the laws of nature and meet in a solemn assembly, passing the time in cheerful joy and relaxation, abstaining from all work, and from all arts which have a tendency to the production of anything; and from all business which is connected with the seeking of the means of living, and that they should keep a complete truce, abstaining from all laborious and fatiguing thought and care………….” ~ Philo of Alexandria- On The Life Of Moses II (In a perpetual weekly system, nature is ignored yet here, Moses decided to follow the laws of nature in solemn assembly on the Sabbath Day, again based on the periodical lunar cycle)

“(14) But the enactments of this lawgiver are firm, not shaken by commotions, not liable to alteration, but stamped as it were with the seal of nature herself, and they remain firm and lasting from the day on which they were first promulgated to the present one, and there may well be a hope that they will remain to all future time, as being immortal, as long as the sun and the moon, and the whole heaven and the whole world shall endure.” ~ Philo of Alexandria- On The Life Of Moses II

Other comments from Philo indicating that the New Moon is determined by conjunction rather than by first crescent:

“The third [festival] is that which comes after the conjunction, which happens on the day of the new moon in each month.” ~ Philo, Special Laws II, Section XI (41)

“Again, the periodical changes of the moon, take place according to the number seven, that star having the greatest sympathy with the things on earth.  And the changes which the moon works in the air, it perfects chiefly in accordance with its own configurations on each seventh day.  At all events, all mortal things, as I have said before, drawing their more divine nature from the heaven, are moved in a manner which tends to their preservation in accordance with this number seven.  ….. Accordingly, on the seventh day, Elohim caused to rest from all his works which he had made…….VII. (17) “And God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it.” God blesses the manners which are formed in accordance with the seventh and divine light, as being truly light, and immediately declares them holy. For that which is blessed, and that which is holy, are closely connected with one another. On this account he says, concerning him who has vowed a great vow, that “If a sudden change comes over him, and pollutes his mind, he shall no longer be Holy.”{4}{#nu 6:9.} But the previous days were not taken into the calculation, as was natural. For those manners which are not holy are not counted, so that which is blessed is alone holy. (18) Correctly therefore, did Moses say that “God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it,” because on it he “caused to rest from all his works which he had begun to make.” And this is the reason why he who lives and conducts himself in accordance with the seventh and perfect light is blessed and holy, since it is in accordance with his nature, that the creation of mortal beings was terminated. For the case is thus: when the light of virtue, which is brilliant and really divine, rises up, then the generation of the contrary nature is checked. And we have shown that God never desists from creating something, but that when he appears to do so he is only beginning the creation of something else; as being not only, the Creator, but also the Father of everything which exists.” ~ Philo, Allegorical Interpretation, 1, Section IV (8-9), Section VI (16), Section VII (17-18)

“And this feast is begun on the fifteenth day of the month, in the middle of the month, on the day on which the moon is full of light, in consequence on the providence of Elohim taking care that there shall be no darkness on that day.” ~ Philo, Special Laws II, The Fifth Festival, Section XXVIII(155)

Other References

The New Moon is still, and the Sabbath originally was, dependent upon the lunar cycle . . . Originally, the New Moon was celebrated in the same way as the Sabbath; gradually it became less important while the Sabbath became more and more a day of religion and humanity, of religious meditation and instruction, of peace and delight of the soul.” ~ Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, “Holidays,” p. 410.

“Neither worship as the Jews…(for) if the moon is not visible, they do not hold the sabbath which is called the first, nor do they hold the New Moon, nor the feast of Unleavened Bread, nor the feast, nor the great day” ~ Clement of Alexandria (150AD-215AD), The Stromata- Chapter 5

“In periods of seven days the moon undergoes its changes. In the first week she becomes half moon; in the second (week)full moon; and in the third (week), in her wane, again half moon; and in the fourth (week) she disappears.” ~ Clement of Alexandria, The Stromata- Chapter 16

“Among all early nations the lunar months were the readiest large divisions of time…(and was divided in 4 weeks), corresponding (to) the phases or the quarters of the moon. In order to connect the reckoning by weeks with the lunar month, we find that all ancient nations observed some peculiar solemnities to mark the day of the New Moon. ~ The Popular and Critical Bible Encyclopedia, Vol. 3, 1904, p.1497

“The Hebrew month is a lunar month and the quarter of this period – one phase of the moon – appears to have determined the week of seven days ~ Encyclopedia Biblica, The MacMillan Company. P. 4780

“For it was only the Constantinian change in 321AD that introduced the seven-day week into the Western civil calendar, transforming it from a stable one (every year the same) to one of instability (every year different).  The new time-measurer, the week (familiar to the Semitic people from ancient times, is the reason for our calendar’s inconsistencies.  Yet, notwithstanding these vagaries, the week has brought to civilization many ethical, religious and sociological benefits.” ~ A Perpetual Calendor- Author E. Achelis- Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Vol. 36 P. 25

“The Sabbath evolved from an irregular and fourfold monthly experience to a regular weekly event ~ Rabbi Martin M. Weitz- Journal of the royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Vol. 36, p.28

Those who still advocate the shifting calendar do so on the assumption that the seven-day week from remote antiquity has continuously been an unbroken chain of seven days.  It is indeed a bold assertion to make when one considers that there have been five great changes of the solar calendar.  And when in addition, one considers that the old Hebraic calendar also underwent changes (ably described by Dr. Julian Morgenstern, who divides these reforms into Calendars I, II, and III), it is reasonable to assume that these various changes were of a thorough-going nature, from one system to the transition of the second and to the third.” ~ Journal of the royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Vol. 36, p.28

“The conclusion which we draw from these data is that the Isralites in preexilic times had lunar months and that, as the year began with the new moon, the year also was lunar; but since the year was bound to seasons, it cannot have been a pure lunar year.  Hence we gather that the calendar was lunisolar, somehow adjusting itself to the equinoxes, though for want of evidence we cannot say how this was done.” ~ Dr. Julian Morgenstern, The Day of Yahweh, Calendar Page 329

“…the situation here disclosed is in principle at least the same as that disclosed by the Babylonian records.  The decadic division of the month is matched in Greece and Babylonia, as well as in Egypt; what especially interests us is that the seventh days of the several decads rather than cyclical weeks of seven days are emphasized.  This condition of the text is inexplicable except upon the assumption that the calendar was in a state of transition and that the cyclical week had not yet become established.  One would like to know to what date this composite document is to be assigned, but there seems to be no means available for determining it.” ~ Dr. Julian Morgenstern, The Day of Yahweh, Calendar Page 346

“The four quarters of the moon supply an obvious division of the month….it is most significant that in the older parts of the Hebrew scriptures the new moon and the Sabbath are almost invariably mentioned together.  The lunar month is beyond question an old sacred division of time common to all the Semites; even the Arabs, who received the week at quite a late period from the Syrians, greeted the New Moon with religious acclamations……We cannot tell (exactly) when the Sabbath became disassociated from the month.” ~ Encyclopedia Biblica (1899 edit.), pp. 4178 and 4179 

“But the Julian calendar, like its predecessor, had no week, having instead Calends, Nones and Ides.  The added 10 days resulted in the irregular length of months that we have today.” Journal of the royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Vol. 36 P. 26

“(Page 205) Then late on the day of the ninth, close to nightfall, they set the Temple on fire, and it continued to burn the entire next day, on the tenth.” (Page 206): “When the Temple was destroyed for the first time at the hands of Nebuzaradan [the captain of the guard], that day was the ninth of Av, and it was the day following Shabbat, and it was the year following the Sabbatical Year…. And similarly when the Temple was destroyed a second time at the hands of Titus, the destruction occurred on the very same day, on the ninth of Av.” ~ Talmud the Steinsaltz Edition”, Volume XIV Tractate Ta’anit Part II (1995 by Israel Institute for Talmudic Publications and Milta Books), pages 205-206

“…There was a distinct break between the Old Testament requirements . . . dealing with the Sabbath worship… They wanted to show that Christianity was distinct from Judaism… The other thing that we should remember, too, is that our calendar that we follow, including Seventh-day Adventists, is not only a calendar that was devised by the Catholic Church, but also it is a calendar that’s based upon the solar year, not the lunar year and the Jewish calendar that was observed in the time of Christ follows a lunar calendar . . . So the great irony is that even the Seventh-day Adventists themselves are not worshipping on exactly the same Sabbath day as the Jews of the time of Christ. ~ Patrick Madrid, Catholic conservative made the startling comment on EWTN, Global Catholic Radio Network on Jan 5, 2006 when answering a question about the Catholic Church changing the day of worship from Saturday to Sunday

“…The (early) Hebrews employed lunar seven-day weeks….which ended with special observances on the seventh day but none the less were tied to the moon’s course.” ~ Hutton Webster in his book “Rest Days” page 254

“And when the moon rises one-fourteenth part appears in the heaven: the light becomes full in her: on the fourteenth day she accomplishes her light. 7. And fifteen parts of light are transferred to her till the fifteenth day (when) her light is accomplished, according to the sign of the year, and she becomes fifteen parts, and the moon grows by (the addition of) fourteenth parts. 8. And in her waning (the moon) decreases on the first day to fourteen parts of her light, on the second to thirteen parts of light, on the third to twelve, on the fourth to eleven, on the fifth to ten, on the sixth to nine, on the seventh to eight, on the eighth to seven, on the ninth to six, on the tenth to five, on the eleventh to four, on the twelfth to three, on the thirteenth to two, on the fourteenth to the half of a seventh, and all her remaining light disappears wholly on the fifteenth. 9. And in certain months the month has twenty-nine days and once twenty-eight.” ~ Book of Enoch, Chapter LXXVII, Verse 6-10

“With the development of the importance of the Sabbath as a day of consecration and the emphasis laid upon the significant number seven, the week became more and more divorced from its lunar connection . . . .” ~ Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. X, “Week,” p. 482.

“Under the reign of Constantius (337-362) the persecutions of the Jews reached such a height that . . . the computation of the calendar [was] forbidden under pain of severe punishment  ~ Excerpted from The Jewish Encyclopedia, “Calendar.”

“Declaring the new month by observation of the new moon, and the new year by the arrival of spring, can only be done by the Sanhedrin. In the time of Hillel II [4th century A. D.], the last President of the Sanhedrin, the Romans prohibited this practice. Hillel II was therefore forced to institute his fixed calendar, thus in effect giving the Sanhedrin’s advance approval to the calendars of all future years, the Jewish Calendar and Holidays (incl. Sabbath): “ ~ The Jewish Calendar: Changing the Calendar-www.torah.org.

“The present Jewish calendar was fixed in the fourth century.” ~ Letter by Louis Finkelstein, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, to Dr. L. E. Froom, Feb. 20, 1939.

“Maimonides and most other Jewish chronologers agree that the modern Jewish calendar is based upon the “mean motions of the sun and moon, the true having been set aside.”  ~ Maimonides, Kiddusch Ha-hodesch, Tr. Mahler, Wein, 1889

“Intercalations [of the calendar] were determined at meetings of a special commission of the Sanhedrin. But Constantius, following the tyrannous precedents of Hadrian, prohibited the holding of such meetings . . . How difficult the fixing of the annual calendar consequently became may be judged from an enigmatic letter addressed to Raba . . . and preserved in the Talmud . . . .Almost the whole Diaspora depended for the legal observance of the feasts and fasts upon the calendar sanctioned by the Judea Sanhedrin; yet danger threatened the participants in that sanction and the messengers who communicated their decisions to distant congregations. . . . As the religious persecutions continued, Hillel determined to provide an authorized calendar for all time to come, though by so doing he severed the ties which united the Jews of the Diaspora to their mother country and to the patriarchate. ~ I. Singer and S. Mendelsohn, “Hillel II,” www.JewishEncyclopedia.com

The months of the year were lunar, and began with the new moon (hodesh, which came to mean “month.”) During the era of the Kings the new moon was observed by a twoday festival (I Sam. 20:24-47.)” ~ The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, “Calendar,” p. 631.

“In the fourth century, Hillel II established a fixed calendar based on mathematical and astronomical calculations. This calendar, still in use, standardized the length of months and the addition of months over the course of a 19 year cycle, so that the lunar calendar realigns with the solar years.” ~ Judaism 101, “Jewish Calendar,” www.jewfaq.org.

“Since Biblical times the months and years of the Jewish calendar have been established by the cycles of the moon and the sun.  The traditional law prescribes that the months shall follow closely the course of the moon . . . In the early times of our history the solution was found by the following practical procedure: The beginnings of the months were determined by direct observation of the new moon. . . This method of observation and intercalation was in use throughout the period of the second temple (516 B.C.E. – 70 C.E.), and about three centuries after its destruction, as long as there was an independent Sanhedrin. In the fourth century, however, when oppression and persecution threatened the continued existence of the Sanhedrin, the patriarch Hillel II took an extraordinary step to preserve the unity of Israel . . . he made public the system of calendar calculation which up to then had been a closely guarded secret. It had been used in the past only to check the observations and testimonies of witnesses, and to determine the beginnings of the spring season. In accordance with this system, Hillel II formally sanctified all months in advance, and intercalated all future leap years until such time as a new, recognized Sanhedrin would be established in Israel. This is the permanent calendar according to which the New Moons and Festivals are calculated and celebrated today by the Jews all over the world. Like the former system of observation, it is based on the Luni-Solar principle.”  ~ Arthur Spier, The Comprehensive Hebrew Calendar, excerpted at www.jewishcalendar.com.

It [the Sabbath] was probably originally connected in some manner with the cult of the moon, as indeed is suggested by the frequent mention of Sabbath and New-Moon festivals in the same sentence (Isa. i. 13; Amos viii. 5; H Kings iv. 23) . . . The Sabbath depending, in Israel’s nomadic period, upon the observation of the phases of the moon, it could not, according to this view, be a fixed day . . . . “ ~ www.jewishencyclopedia.com, “Sabbath (See “Probable Lunar Origin Section).”

The week of seven days was connected with the lunar month, of which it is, approximately, a fourth. The quadripartite division of the month was evidently in use among the Hebrews and other ancient peoples; but it is not clear whether it originated among the former. It is unnecessary to assume, however, that it was derived from the Babylonians, for it is equally possible that observations of the four phases of the moon led the Hebrew nomads spontaneously and independently to devise the system of dividing the interval between the successive new moons into four groups of seven days each. There is ground, on the other hand, for the assumption that both among the Babylonians and among the Hebrews the first day of the first week of the month was always reckoned as coincident with the first day of the month. ~ www.jewishencyclopedia.com, “Week.”

Dead Sea Scrolls

When the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered, archaeologists found several manuscripts which dated, approximately, from the 1st century B.C. What made these particular documents so unusual, however, is that they were for the express purpose of synchronizing the lunar calendar to a longer solar calendar. Archeologists found that two of these scrolls (4Q320 and 4Q321) recorded the beginnings of the solar months and the festivals. A third manuscript, 4Q321a, might also have given this information, but because part of the text had disintegrated over time, it is impossible to know for sure.

The descendants of Aaron were divided into 24 courses for service. The names of these courses are given in I Chron. 24:7-18. All three texts give the priestly rotation for temple service at the time covered. The following quotes show how luni-solar dates correspond to dates on the solar calendar. It is important to note that at this time, the Jews were under the dominion of the Romans and the solar year to which they were comparing the luni-solar dates was likely the Julian calendar or its immediate predecessor.

The following quotations are taken from The Dead Sea Scrolls, translated by Michael Wise, Martin Abegg, Jr., and Edward Cook:

4Q320 Mishmerot A (fragment 1, column 1):

Line 6: [On the fifth day of Jeda]iah is the twenty-ninth day (of the lunar month), on the thirtieth day of the (first solar) month.

Line 12: [On the Sabbath of the course of Seori]m is the twenty-ninth day (of the lunar month), on the twenty-fifth day of the seventh (solar month).

4Q321 Mishmerot Ba (fragment 1, column 1):

Lines 4 and 5: . . . and the first crescent [of the moon] is on the sabbath of the course of Pethahiah, on the ninth of the [solar] month.

4Q321a Mishmerot Bb: This fragment regulates the lunar calendar to the solar for the first year, months two through five.

Line 4: [(The full moon is on the) Sabbath of the course of Koz, on the thirtieth day of the second (solar) month, and the first crescent is on the first day of Malchijah, on the seventeenth] of the month.

“Over time, the observance of the New Moon as a day of consecration dwindled in importance.  In the Diaspora the New Moon came to occupy a secondary position in contrast to the Sabbath; the prohibition against work and the carrying on of commerce was lifted, and the New Moon, although still celebrated by means of increased offerings, soon was reduced to the rank of a minor of half holiday. Its importance was confined to the fact that it remained of great value and necessity for the fixing of the festivals.” ~ Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, “New Moon,” Vol. 8, p. 171

The belief, that the week has come down uninterrupted since Creation, is not an assumption shared by modern Jewish scholars who know their history. A continuous seven-day cycle that runs throughout history paying no attention whatsoever to the moon and its phases is a distinctly Jewish invention. Moreover, the dissociation of the seven-day week from nature has been one of the most significant contributions of Judaism to civilization. Like the invention of the mechanical clock some 1,500 years later, it facilitates the establishment of what Lewis Mumford identified as “mechanical periodicity,” thus essentially increasing the distance between human beings and nature. Quasi [lunar] weeks and [continuous] weeks actually represent two fundamentally distinct modes of temporal organization of human life, the former involving partial adaptation to nature, and the latter stressing total emancipation from it. The invention of the continuous week was therefore one of the most significant breakthroughs in human beings’ attempts to break away from being prisoners of nature [and from under God’s law] and create a social world of their own. ~ Eviator Zerubavel, The Seven Day Circle: the History and Meaning of the Week, The Free Press, New York, 1985, p. 11

One “proof” given to support belief in a Saturday Sabbath is the fact that the word for the seventh day of the week in many languages is, or bears a resemblance to, the word “Sabbath.” This, too, is explained by Zerubavel:

“The Jewish and astrological weeks evolved quite independently of one another. However, given the coincidence of their identical length, it was only a matter of time before some permanent correspondence between particular Jewish days and particular planetary days would be made. A permanent correspondence between the Sabbath and “the day of Saturn” was thus established . . . [some time] later than the first century of the present era, Jews even came to name the planet Saturn Shabtai, after the original Hebrew name of the Sabbath, Shabbath. Moreover, as they came into closer contact with Hellenism, their conception of their holy day was evidently affected by the astrological conception of Saturn as a planet that has an overwhelming negative influence (a conception which, incidentally, is still evident even from the association of the English word “saturnine” with a gloomy disposition.) There are traditional Jewish superstitious beliefs about demons and evil spirits that hold full sway on the Sabbath, and an old Jewish legend even links the choice of “the day of Saturn” as the official Jewish rest day with the superstition that it would be an inauspicious day for doing any work anyway!” ~ Ibid., p. 17

Zerubavel clearly understands the origins of the ancient Hebrew calendar, as well as the connection to the Creator:

The dissociation of the week from a natural cycle such as the waxing and waning of the moon can be seen as part of a general movement toward introducing a supranatural deity. Not being personified as any particular natural force, the Jewish god was to be regarded as untouched by nature in any way. Accordingly, the day dedicated to this god was to be regarded as part of a divine temporal pattern that transcends even nature itself. That obviously involved dissociating the week from nature and its rhythms. Only by being based on an entirely artificial mathematical rhythm could the Sabbath observance become totally independent of the lunar or any other natural cycle.” ~ Ibid., p. 11.

The significance of a Creator God who stands separate and above the planetary calendar He has created, was a concept used by Abraham the patriarch when attempting to witness to the Chaldeans in Ur. According to Josephus (c.a., A. D. 37 – A.D. 101), a Chaldean historian, Berosus, mentions Abraham as having great knowledge of astronomy:

“In the tenth generation after the Flood, there was among the Chaldeans a man [Abram] righteous and great, and skilful in the celestial science ~ as quoted by Josephus in Antiquities of the Jews

Unfortunately, the Chaldeans had already apostatized from the worship of the Creator God. In turning from their Creator to the creation, the city of Ur had for its patron god, the moon god, Sin. Josephus states:

“He [Abram] was a person of great sagacity [wisdom], both for understanding all things and persuading his hearers, and not mistaken in his opinions; for which reason he began to have higher notions of virtue than others had, and he determined to renew and to change the opinions all men happened then to have concerning God; for he was the first that ventured to publish this notion, that there was but one God, the Creator of the universe; and that, as to other [gods], if they contributed anything to the happiness of men, that each of them afforded it only according to his appointment, and not by their own power.” ~ Antiquities of the Jews, Book I, chapter VII, verse 1.

The very fact that both the solar and lunar years are differing lengths requiring intercalation (adding extra days or months, respectively, during “leap” years) was used by Abraham to prove that nature itself was not god, but that there was a Being superior to nature that was its Creator:

“This his opinion was derived from the irregular phenomena that were visible both at land and sea, as well as those that happen to the sun and moon, and all the heavenly bodies, thus:- “If [said he] these bodies had power of their own, they would certainly take care of their own regular motions; but since they do not preserve such regularity, they made it plain, that in so far as they co-operate to our advantage, they do it not of their own abilities, but as they are subservient to Him that commands them; to whom alone we ought justly to offer our honour and thanksgiving.” ~ Ibid

It was this very teaching which according to Josephus, was a contributing factor in Abraham’s decision to leave Ur:

“For which doctrines, when the Chaldeans and other people of Mesopotamia raised a tumult against him, he thought fit to leave that country; and at the command, and by the assistance of God, he came and lived in the land of Canaan.” ~ Ibid

The historian Josephus records Shabbats that can be pinpointed and they are on the 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th and the New moon was not counted as one of the six workdays. The Roman’s saw that the Jews, on the Shabbat, did not fight unless attacked. They moved their engines and battering rams up to the walls on the Shabbat day, which otherwise they could not do, and on the next day, they battered the city. Josephus records that the 23rd was the “next day” after the Shabbat when the Romans battered them, or the day after the Shabbat when they had everything in place. (See page 369. Antiquities of the Jews Book 14, Chapter 4:3 and footnote on page 370)

The belief that Saturday must be the Sabbath of the Bible (because the Jews worship on that day) is an assumption that all Christians have made. However, in light of the fact that the Jews themselves admit that their modern calendar is not the same as that used before the 4th century C.E., Bible scholars and all who love the Sabbath would do well to reexamine this long-held belief. If it is important to worship on a precise, specific day, than the calendar by which you calculate that day must also be the correct calendar. The luni-solar calendar is the only calendar which has roots in the Bible. It was established by God at Creation. All other calendars have roots in paganism. To truly keep the fourth commandment, the Sabbath should be calculated by God’s calendar: the moon.

“And then the moon, ever punctual to mark the times, an everlasting sign: It is the moon that signals the feasts, a luminary that wanes after being full. The month derives its name from hers. She waxes wonderfully in her phases, banner of the hosts on high, shining in the vault of heaven.”  ~ Ecclesiasticus 43:6-8, c.a. 190-180 B.C.

The time is coming soon where all truth will be revealed, and there will be a division among Christians.  Those that believe that a portion of God’s commandments (Sabbaths and Feasts) are non-essential to salvation while keeping others as essential, and those that believe that all of God’s commandments are binding while choosing to be fully obedient.  We encourage you to read the “Why Follow The Commandments” and “God’s New Covenant” pages of this site so that you can see that God’s commandments, all of them, are binding even in these last days.  In the end, those that obey the laws of the beast, belong to the beast and those that obey the laws of God belong to God.  More will be mentioned on this subject in the future “Mark of the Beast” page of this site.  We hope that this page helps with your study of God’s inspired scriptures and we pray that you choose daily to be cleansed and rehabilitated in the blood of our Savior and Mediator Jesus Christ.

20 thoughts on “God’s Calendar”

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